Classical Greece vs. Hellenistic Greece Principles Economy During Classical Greece religion was one important principle. The Hellenistic Period is the historical period that starts with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and ends with the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire. Impressive scientific innovations were made in Alexandria where the Greek Eratosthenes computed the circumference of the earth, Archimedes calculated pi, and Euclid compiled his geometry text. Luckily for the Greeks, Flamininus was a moderate man and an admirer of Greek culture. The political weakness of the empire made it an easy target in the ascent of Rome as a regional power; by 149 B.C., Greece itself was a province of the Roman Empire. Science, Tech, Math Science Math Social Sciences Computer Science Animals & Nature Humanities ... Hellenistic Greece. Macedon fell to Cassander, son of Alexander's leading general Antipater, who after several years of warfare made himself master of most of the rest of Greece. That is why the period from 323 BC to 27 BC became known as the Hellenistic period. Hellenistic Greece's definitive end was with the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, when the future emperor Augustus defeated Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony, the next year taking over Alexandria, the last great center of Hellenistic Greece.[1]. The Peace of Apamaea (188 BC) left Rome in a dominant position throughout Greece. The Hellenistic Period The death of Alexanderthe Great in 323 B.C.. stage in world history. Lysimachus was in turn defeated and killed in 280 BC. The defeat of the Greek cities by Philip and Alexander also taught the Greeks that their city-states could never again be powers in their own right, and that the hegemony of Macedon and its successor states could not be challenged unless the city states united, or at least federated. Roman taxes were imposed, except in Athens and Sparta, and all the cities had to accept rule by Rome's local allies. The era was also marked by successive wars between the Kingdom of Macedonia and its allies against the Aetolian League, Achaean League, and the city-state of Sparta. The Hellenistic Period is a part of the Ancient Period for the European and Near Asian space. The Hellenistic period in Ancient Greece (323–146 BC) was the time period between the death of Alexander the Great when the generals of Alexander created their own empires and the Roman conquest of mainland Greece.. During this era: Greek culture, art and power expanded all over the Eastern Mediterranean (including Anatolia, Egypt, the Levant and the Balkans). The 98-foot tall statue commemorated the victory of the island of Rhodes against the predations of Antigonus I Monopthalmus. Most of the Greek cities rallied to the Achaeans' side, even slaves were freed to fight for Greek independence. Bagnall, Roger, and Peter Derow, editors and translators. As a result of Eumenes's intrigues Rome declared war on Macedon in 171 BC, bringing 100,000 troops into Greece. Epirus was an ally of Macedon during the reigns of Philip II and Alexander. It was when Octavian, who later became the emperor Augustus, defeated Marc Antony‘s fleet and, consequently, ended Ptolemaic rule. New major urban centres emerged, such as Pergamon, Antioch and Alexandria. [2] The Achaean League eventually included all of the Peloponnese except Sparta, while the Aetolian League expanded into Phocis. With this wealth, building and other cultural programs were established in each region. See From Alexander to Cleopatra, by Michael Grant, and "Hellenistic Literature," by Moses Hadas. The Hellenistic period began in 323 BCE, with the death of Alexander the Great. Greece now lay across Rome's line of communications with the east, and Roman soldiers became a permanent presence. The library flourished under the Ptolemaic dynasty and withstood several disasters until it was ultimately destroyed in the second century A.D. Another triumphalist building effort was the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Attic Greek became the lingua franca. His vast empire split up between his leading generals, who established royal dynasties over the separate kingdoms. In 198 BC, the Second Macedonian War broke out for obscure reasons, but very likely because Rome saw Macedon as a potential ally of the Seleucids, the greatest power in the east. Some Greek cities now thought of Antiochus as their saviour from Roman rule, but Macedon threw its lot in with Rome. Pergamum, Ephesus, Antioch, Damascus, and Trapezus are few of the cities whose reputations have survived to our day. The Greeks had an oracle. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. The Ptolemaic kingdom was now the city's main ally, supporting it with troops, monies and material in multiple conflicts. In 146 BC, the Greek peninsula, though not the islands, became a Roman protectorate. Hellenistic Greece is the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek Achaean League heartlands by the Roman Republic. While warfare between Greek cities continued, the cities responded to the threat of the post Alexandrian Hellenistic states by banding together into alliances or becoming allies of a strong Hellenistic state which could come to its defense therefore making it asylos or inviolate to attack by other cities. Philip had to surrender his fleet and become a Roman ally, but was otherwise spared. Athens fought more unsuccessful wars against Macedon with Ptolemaic aid such as the Chremonidean War. The fusion … Antigonus II ruled until his death in 239 BC, and his family retained the Macedonian throne until it was abolished by the Romans in 146 BC. The great centers of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch, capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria respectively. Poor generalship by the Romans enabled him to hold out for three years, but in 168 BC the Romans sent Lucius Aemilius Paullus to Greece, and at Pydna the Macedonians were crushingly defeated. 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